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Have you ever wondered about how your computer talks to other computers across the world? Think of it like the game “Telephone,” but instead of whispering messages from one person to another, computers send data across networks. It’s all happening because of a set of rules, something called the network stack. Let’s simplify this concept so that everyone can understand how it works. Imagine for a while, there were no rules for how devices like computers and phones talk to each other over a network. Without rules for checking errors, protecting data, managing how data flows, or standardizing the format of data, everything would be a mess. Networks would stop working properly, and businesses wouldn’t be able to operate. The network stack, also known as computer network layers, solves this problem. It sets a framework or a set of rules that allows different devices and software to work together smoothly on a network.

What is the Network Stack?

The network stack is a series of protocols or rules that network devices follow to ensure smooth communication. It’s like having a set of rules at a roundtable discussion where each layer knows exactly when, where, and how to speak. This stack, often visualized through the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model, divides the communication process into seven distinct layers, each with a specific function. Let’s look at the roles of each layer in the network stack like it’s a team working together to deliver a letter through a complicated postal system:

  • Physical layer
  • Data link Layer
  • Network layer
  • Transport layer
  • Session layer
  • Presentation layer
  • Application layer

Physical Layer

  • Role: This is like the trucks and roads in our postal system. It deals with the actual physical parts used to transmit data—like cables, radio signals, and other equipment. It makes sure that the data can physically travel from one place to another.

Data Link Layer

  • Role: Imagine this as the mail sorting facility. It organizes data into packages (frames) and checks if they’re damaged, sending them back if there’s something wrong. It helps in organizing data properly and ensures that the data packets are error-free and ready for delivery.

Network Layer

  • Role: Think of this as the system that decides the route your mail takes to get to its destination. It finds the best path for data to travel across different networks. It ensures that the data reaches the correct device across the entire world.

Transport Layer

  • Role: This layer is like the postal worker who makes sure your letter gets to the right person’s mailbox. It looks after the delivery of data from one end to another, making sure it’s complete and in order. It provides reliable communication by managing how data is sent and ensuring it arrives intact and in the right order.

Session Layer

  • Role: Imagine this as the service that keeps track of your conversations. If you send multiple letters (data) to a friend, the session layer makes sure each letter is part of the same conversation and not mixed with others. It manages sessions to keep different data transfers organized and separate.

Presentation Layer

  • Role: This is like the translator who makes sure your friend understands your letter, no matter what language you write in. It converts data into a format that the application layer can understand. It ensures data looks right to the applications by translating data from one format to another.

Application Layer

  • Role: This is like you, writing the letter and deciding to send it. It’s where applications operate, like your email program. It allows users and software to access network services, making it possible for you to send emails, files, and other data.

Each layer has a unique job but works together with the others to ensure that your data travels safely and efficiently across the network, just like a well-organized postal system.

Why Does This Matter?

Imagine you have a big box of building blocks, where each layer of blocks has a special task that helps build a strong building. The network stack is like that box of building blocks for computers to talk to each other over the internet. Each layer in the stack has a different job, one might be for making sure the wires and cables are okay, while another layer might be for making sure the messages are sent to the right computer. Why is it important? Well, just like when you’re building with blocks, if one layer isn’t set up right, the whole tower might wobble or even fall down! So, if there’s a problem with the computers talking to each other, knowing about these layers helps people figure out which block isn’t working right, so they can fix it and make the communication strong and smooth again, just like fixing a big block in your tower to keep it safe from falling down.

Understanding the network stack helps you troubleshoot problems. If your email isn’t sending, the issue might be in the Application Layer. If a website isn’t loading, the problem could be in any layer from Physical to Application. Knowing what each layer does gives you a starting point for solving these issues.

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The network stack might seem complex, but it’s really just about dividing the task of sending data into manageable pieces. Each layer has a clear role, working together to make sure your data travels safely from point A to point B. And when you need top-quality networking gear, remember that Topparagonresource.Com is your go-to resource for everything from simple setups to comprehensive network solutions.

A Local Area Network (LAN) is the main element of communication in various locations, such as office premises, families’ homes, and schools. This kind of network is used to connect several devices within a small area and share resources. Therefore it has become an important aspect of contemporary computers. They ensure ease of access and sharing of information between computers and printer/scanner gadgets which enhance efficiency and collaboration.

Each day there is a change in technology. And the type of LANs that can be used in a given environment, and other requirements. These variations include WLANs which utilize radio waves for communication and which are more flexible. And classic LANs which are wired up and require physical cables to connect devices.

Top Paragon Resources discusses the various types of local area network in this blog post. It will also extensively explain LAN technology. As well as the various applications of this technology and how they function including the most appropriate setting for their use.

What is LAN?

We can say that LAN networks are used to enhance a wide variety of applications offering additional functionality. In addition to facilitating the required communication and resource sharing for the required operational efficiency. For instance servers that are providing services like email servers, file servers and application servers might be operated in LANs. This helps to set a central system and improve management of vital processes for the companies and educational organizations.

Moreover, the development of Wi-Fi and high-speed Ethernet protocols enhanced the data transfer rates within the local area networks (LANs). Ensuring the high quality streaming of HD video and the effective use of big data with minimal latency.

One important advantage of LANs is their support of VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technologies. Enabling audio and video conferences via a network without requiring standard phone service. This will benefit organizations who want to reduce operating costs and enhance communication abilities.

LANs can have firewalls and other security measures added to protect their confidential data and stop any unauthorized access. This is essential in the modern digital age as cybersecurity attacks are getting frequent. Building up a secure LAN network allows organizations to safeguard their digital assets and ensure data privacy. LANs are essential to the current digital world since they provide the infrastructure needed for many computing needs within a limited geographic region.

5 Types of LAN


Ethernet LAN:

  • Function: Devices use Ethernet LANs to connect devices using coaxial cable, twisted pairs, or fiber optic cable. It operates on a packet switching technology, and reveals the capability of bandwidth sharing among many devices.
  • Best Use: Ethernet LANs are particularly useful in the application areas where there is a need for high data transmission rates. They scale from small networks to large ones. 

Wireless LAN (WLAN):

    • Function: Wireless local area networks (WLANs) rely on RF to transmit information between devices without the need for connecting cables. WLAN devices transmit data via one common point – a node for radio signal exchange.
    • Best Use: WLANs are suitable where wiring of cords is not possible. They also serve areas that have the need for mobility of users, like coffee shops, libraries and so forth. 

Token Ring LAN:

  • Function: Token Ring LANs: If the devices in a Token Ring LAN are interconnected in a circular fashion. The data flows from one device to the next in a sequential manner. We can use the token feature to allow data transmission only from the device with the token.
  • Best Use: Token Ring LANs are useful in environments where timely operations of the network are crucial. Such as in manufacturing processes, and also in environments with a large number of users that must be appropriately monitored.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

  • Function: FDDI can transmit and receive large quantities of data over long distances and it has two fiber optic lines as loop backup. That is why if one of the rings fails to function the system automatically turns to the second one. 
  • Best Use: A good implementation of FDDI is as the backbone for wide area networks connecting large LANs. These WANs are required due to certain facts like in case of large campuses like colleges, hospitals and even government buildings data has to be transmitted over long distances in quick time.

Power Line LAN:

    • Function: This type of local area network sends data over power lines, which means that power and data are sent over the same wires. By plugging the right adapter into a wall outlet, you can connect devices to a network without using extra cords.
    • Best Use: Power Line LAN technology is great for homes because it lets you connect devices without having to add more wires. It’s also very helpful in older buildings where there isn’t much room for adding new network wire.



Cisco conferencing microphones offer a vast range of audio reporting solution for integrated video systems, room kits and custom video deployments – either on the table or tastefully through the ceiling. These Cisco Microphones Data Sheet – intelligent microphones are optimized for sound reproduction voice pickup and useful noise cancellation, and planned for use in small-to-large meeting rooms and focused spaces to enable a distraction-free audio experience and wide-ranging collaboration for remote meeting contributor.

Cisco Table Microphone
Cisco Table Microphone


Cisco Ceiling Microphone
Cisco Ceiling Microphone


Cisco Table Microphone Pro
Cisco Table Microphone Pro

Cisco Microphones Data Sheet Features and Benefits

The Cisco® microphone portfolio is complete up of the Table Microphone, Ceiling Microphone, and the Table Microphone Pro.

  • The Cisco Table Microphone is an analogue, Omni-directional microphone item for Cisco video conferencing systems. It is perfect for omnidirectional reporting for small-to-large rooms with fixed tables. Cisco Table Microphone is available in two versions, either with plug or a mini jack. It is also planned to keep tables tidy and clean, as it can be recessed into the simply rest on a magnetic table plate.
  • The Ceiling Microphone is a premium quality, reliable directional microphone planned to cover larger meeting spaces, such as demo rooms, auditoriums and training rooms with easy ceiling mounting, while freeing up table space.
  • New Cisco Table Microphone Pro is a high-quality digital conferencing microphone planned to offer room kits and Cisco video collaboration systems with capable speech capture and good audio processing. The Table Microphone Pro recognizes which side of the table the speaker is on and uses adaptive audio technology to block out distract sounds from the background with your Cisco video devices. It takes sleek design, versatile mounting and simplified cable management options for enhanced flexibility and lower use costs.

Cisco Microphones Data Sheet Product Specifications


Product Name

Table Microphone

Ceiling Microphone

Table Microphone Pro

Description Balanced omnidirectional table microphone, boundary layer type Balanced directional microphone (180-degree pickup pattern), boundary layer type Digital, directional microphone (360-degree cardioid pickup pattern)
Product compatibility ●  Room Bar, Room Bar Pro, Room Kit, Room Kit Plus, Room Kit EQ, Room Kit EQX, Room Kit Pro

●  Room 55, Room 55 Dual, Room 70, Room 70 G2

●  SX10, SX20, SX80

●  MX700, MX800

●  Board Pro 55/75

●  Room Bar, Room Bar Pro, Room Kit, Room Kit Plus, Room Kit EQ, Room Kit EQX, Room Kit Pro

●  Room 55, Room 55 Dual, Room 70, Room 70 G2

●  SX10, SX20, SX80

●  MX200, MX300, MX700, MX800

●  Board Pro 55/75

●  Room Bar Pro

●  Room Kit EQ

●  Room Kit EQX

●  Room Kit Pro

●  Board Pro 55/75

●  Room Panorama

●  Room 70 Panorama

●  Room 70 Panorama Upgrade

Connector Choose between 4-pin mini jack and 4-pin Euroblock versions Delivered with both 4-pin Euroblock and 4-pin mini jack connectors Ethernet RJ45
Frequency range 80 Hz to 20 kHz, +/-6 dB 80 Hz to 20 kHz, +/- 6 dB 100 Hz to 16 kHz, +/- 6 dB (on axis)
Free field sensitivity -34 dB +/- 3 dB rel 1V/Pa, 1kHz -33 dB +/- 3 dB rel 1V/Pa, 1kHz -22 dBFS +/- 3 dB rel 1V/Pa, 1kHz
Signal-to-noise ratio Minimum 70 dB Minimum 72 dB Minimum 70 dB
Mute functionality LED showing mute status Mute/unmute button LED showing mute status LED showing mute status Mute/unmute button
Physical dimensions
(L x D x H)
Round shape

6.39 cm (diameter) x 1.09 cm

2.52 in (diameter) x 0.43 in

75 x 55 x 27 cm

29.5 x 21.6 x 9.8 in

Diameter: 10 cm (3,94 inches)

Height: 3 cm (1,18 inch)

10 x 10 x 3 cm

3.94 x 3.94 x 1.18 in

Attached cable length: 11 m (36 feet)

Weight 0.28 lb (0.126 kg) 4.08 lb / 1.85 kg 0.29 lb / 0.3 kg
Phantom power 9V/52V 12V / 48V Power over Ethernet


Product sustainability

Cisco environmental sustainability information

Sustainability topic









Information on product-material-content laws and regulations




Information on electronic waste laws and regulations, including our products, batteries and packaging





Information on product takeback and resuse program



Sustainability Inquiries







WEEE Compliance






Cisco Takeback and Reuse Program








Product packaging weight and materials




Ordering information

Product Name Part Number
Cisco Table Microphone with 4-pin mini jack connector,7.5 meters cable CS-MIC-TABLE-J=
Cisco Table Microphone with 4-pin Euroblock connector,9 meters cable CS-MIC-TABLE-E=
Cisco Table Microphone extension cable for the 4-pin mini jack cables, 9 meters CAB-MIC-EXT-J=
Cisco Table Microphone extension cable for the 4-pin mini Euroblock cables, 9 meters CAB-MIC-EXT-E=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone(clips for grid ceiling mounting not included) CTS-MIC-CLNG-G2
Cisco Ceiling Microphone optional cable(10 meter not plenum rated) CAB-ETHRSHLD-10M
Cisco Table Microphone Pro CS-MIC-ARRAY-T


Cisco Microphone Spare Parts Ordering Information

Product Name

Part Number

Compliance Model Number

Cisco Table Microphone spare cable for the 4-pin mini jack connector, 7.5mm cable CAB-MIC-TABLE-J=
Cisco Table Microphone spare cable for the 4-pin Euroblock connector, 9m cable CAB-MIC-TABLE-E=
Cisco Table Microphone spare table-top metal plate (3 units) CS-MIC-TABLE-PLA=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone plates CTS-MIC-CLNG-PLT=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone element CTS-MIC-CLNG-ELM=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone dongles (RJ-45 mini jack and RJ4-5 Euroblock) CTS-MIC-CLNG-DNG=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone wiring kit (2 meters/6.5 feet) CTS-MIC-CLNG-WRK=
Cisco Ceiling Microphone cable (10 meters/32.8 feet) CAB-ETHRSHLD-10M=
Cisco Table Microphone Pro CS-MIC-ARRAY-T= TTC5-17

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